Lithography using a single beam e-beam tool
Originally developed by IBM in the 1980s, electron-beam lithography makes use of a single-beam e-beam tool. E-beam lithography is sometimes known as maskless lithography or direct-write lithography. The e-beam directly writes patterns on a wafer at resolutions below 10nm. It is attractive because it enables fine resolutions without the need of a photomask. In e-beam lithography, the throughputs are relatively slow, however.