Back-End-of-Line (BEOL) Metallization

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) for Back-End-of-Line (BEOL) metallization is being pushed to the limits at the 16-nanometer (nm) technology node and beyond. Extending PVD for metal liner and barrier seed deposition is forcing the process into a narrow window that must be characterized prior to manufacturing introduction. Furthermore, understanding the liner dependency on the trench and via etch... » read more