Author's Latest Posts


Next-Generation Ethernet Interconnects For 400G Hyperscale Data Centers


The need for higher bandwidth with efficient connectivity increases as hyperscale data centers transition to faster, flatter, and more scalable network architectures, such as the 2-tier leaf-spine, as seen in Figure 1. The leaf-spine architecture requires massive interconnects as each leaf switch fans-out to every spine switch, maximizing connectivity between servers. Hardware accelerators, art... » read more

32GT/s PCI Express Design Considerations


Today’s networking and rapidly emerging artificial intelligence (AI) applications are requiring more bandwidth in accelerators and GPUs, as well as faster interconnects to transmit and receive greater amounts of data. Towards the middle of 2017 the PCI-SIG industry consortium announced its latest specification, PCIe 5.0, which raised the data rate from 16GT/s to 32GT/s and doubled the link... » read more

One PHY Does Not Fit All


Consumers expect their battery-operated mobile devices to be faster, smaller and more reliable while providing greater functionality at a reduced cost. Most of all, consumers demand longer battery life and 24/7 access to data. To meet these demands, consumer system-on-a-chip (SoC) designers must make tradeoffs between features, performance, power and cost. Enterprise SoC designers have their... » read more

Using PCI Express L1 Sub-states To Minimize Power Consumption In Advanced Process Nodes


The major sources of Internet traffic are shifting from wired to wireless and mobile devices. With the growing regulatory requirements and increased consumer pressure for more power-efficient products, designers need to better understand and optimize the power consumption of battery-operated devices. Power consumption of a portable device widely varies based on the user’s behavior and appl... » read more