SRAM-Based IMC For Cryogenic CMOS Using Commercial 5 nm FinFETs


A technical paper titled “Cryogenic In-Memory Computing for Quantum Processors Using Commercial 5-nm FinFETs” was published by researchers at University of Stuttgart, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, University of California Berkeley, and Technical University of Munich. Abstract: "Cryogenic CMOS circuits that efficiently connect the classical domain with the quantum world are the co... » read more

Journey From Cell-Aware To Device-Aware Testing Begins


Early results of using device-aware testing on alternative memories show expanded test coverage, but this is just the start. Once the semiconductor industry realized that it was suffering from device failures even when test programs achieved 100% fault coverage, it went about addressing this disconnect between the way defects manifest themselves inside devices and the commonly used fault mod... » read more

What Designers Need To Know About GAA


While only 12 years old, finFETs are reaching the end of the line. They are being supplanted by gate-all-around (GAA), starting at 3nm [1], which is expected to have a significant impact on how chips are designed. GAAs come in two main flavors today — nanosheets and nanowires. There is much confusion about nanosheets, and the difference between nanosheets and nanowires. The industry still ... » read more

What Data Center Chipmakers Can Learn From Automotive


Automotive OEMs are demanding their semiconductor suppliers achieve a nearly unmeasurable target of 10 defective parts per billion (DPPB). Whether this is realistic remains to be seen, but systems companies are looking to emulate that level of quality for their data center SoCs. Building to that quality level is more expensive up front, although ultimately it can save costs versus having to ... » read more

Self-Heating Issues Spread


With every new node there are additional physical effects that must be considered, but not all of them are of the same level of criticality. One that is being mentioned more frequently is self-heating. All devices consume power and when they do that, it becomes heat. "In essence, all active devices generate heat as carriers move, creating channels for current to pass through the gates," says... » read more

Week In Review: Semiconductor Manufacturing, Test


Chips for consumer devices are down, but the overall chip industry is actively preparing for the next phase of growth. Worldwide silicon wafer shipments, which are an aggregate view of all the various semiconductor segments, hit an all-time high in 2022, increasing 4% to 14,713 million square inches (MSI). Wafer revenue, meanwhile, rose 9.5% to $13.8 billion over the same period, SEMI reported ... » read more

Screening For Silent Data Errors


Engineers are beginning to understand the causes of silent data errors (SDEs) and the data center failures they cause, both of which can be reduced by increasing test coverage and boosting inspection on critical layers. Silent data errors are so named because if engineers don’t look for them, then they don’t know they exist. Unlike other kinds of faulty behaviors, these errors also can c... » read more

Radiation Tolerance Is Not Just For Rocket Scientists


As technology scales, soft errors from particle radiation are becoming increasingly concerning for in-field reliability. These radiation effects are called Single Event Upsets (SEU) and the frequency of the failures due to SEUs is known as the Soft Error Rate (SER). Soft errors are failures due to external sources. By contrast, hard errors refer to actual process manufacturing defects or electr... » read more

Which Foundry Is In The Lead? It Depends.


The multi-billion-dollar race for foundry leadership is becoming more convoluted and complex, making it difficult to determine which company is in the lead at any time because there are so many factors that need to be weighed. This largely is a reflection of changes in the customer base at the leading edge and the push toward domain-specific designs. In the past, companies like Apple, Google... » read more

Why Silent Data Errors Are So Hard To Find


Cloud service providers have traced the source of silent data errors to defects in CPUs — as many as 1,000 parts per million — which produce faulty results only occasionally and under certain micro-architectural conditions. That makes them extremely hard to find. Silent data errors (SDEs) are random defects produced in manufacturing, not a design bug or software error. Those defects gene... » read more

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