Author's Latest Posts


Interconnect Prominence In Fail-Operational Architectures


When we in the semiconductor world think about safety, we think about ISO 26262, FMEDA and safety mechanisms like redundancy, ECC and lock-step operation. Once we have that covered, any other aspect of safety is somebody else’s problem, right? Sadly no, for us at least. As we push towards higher levels of autonomy, SAE levels 3 and above, we’re integrating more functionality into our SoCs, ... » read more

Memory Architectures In AI: One Size Doesn’t Fit All


In the world of regular computing, we are used to certain ways of architecting for memory access to meet latency, bandwidth and power goals. These have evolved over many years to give us the multiple layers of caching and hardware cache-coherency management schemes which are now so familiar. Machine learning (ML) has introduced new complications in this area for multiple reasons. AI/ML chips ca... » read more

AI: Where’s The Money?


A one-time technology outcast, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has come a long way. Now there’s groundswell of interest and investments in products and technologies to deliver high performance visual recognition, matching or besting human skills. Equally, speech and audio recognition are becoming more common and we’re even starting to see more specialized applications such as finding optimized... » read more

ISO 26262:2018, 2nd Edition: What Changes?


If you’re involved somehow in design for automotive electronics, you probably have more than a cursory understanding of the ISO 26262 standard. What your organization is working from is most likely the 2011 definition. The most recent update is formally known as ISO 26262:2018, less formally as ISO 26262 2nd Edition. Figure 1. Overview of the ISO 26262:2018 series of standards (Source IS... » read more

AI Chips: NoC Interconnect IP Solves Three Design Challenges


New network-on-chip (NoC) interconnect IP is now available for artificial intelligence (AI) systems-on-chip (SoC). Arteris IP launched the fourth generation of the FlexNoC interconnect IP with a new optional AI package. The novel NoC interconnect technologies solves many data flow problems in today’s AI designs. Innovative features address the requirements of the next-generation of AI chips t... » read more

A Primer On Last-Level Cache Memory For SoC Designs


System-on-chip (SoC) architects have a new memory technology, last level cache (LLC), to help overcome the design obstacles of bandwidth, latency and power consumption in megachips for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), machine learning, and data-center applications. LLC is a standalone memory that inserts cache between functional blocks and external memory to ease conflicting requireme... » read more

Neural Nets In ADAS And Autonomous Driving SoC Designs


Automotive electronics has ushered in a new wave of semiconductor design innovation and one new technology gaining a lot of attention is neural networks (NNs). Advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS) and autonomous car designs now rely on NNs to meet the real-time requirements of complex object-recognition algorithms. The concept of NNs has been around since World War II, promising a futu... » read more

How SoC Interconnect Enables Flexible Architecture For ADAS And Autonomous Car Designs


When the mobile phone era saw its fastest growth, the design teams that were the most innovative were able to introduce game-changing features before anyone else. Those companies also had the most configurable interconnect IP, allowing them to adapt to quickly changing market needs faster than their competition. Now, nearly a decade later, when autonomous driving is quickly moving into the m... » read more

Building In Functional Safety At The Lowest Hardware Levels Supports Autonomous Driving’s Future


Long before automotive electronic system designers chose artificial intelligence and machine learning as the path toward the future of autonomous driving’s future, it was clear that high-performance computing platforms typically found in data center systems clearly were not going to provide all the answers. Automotive system designers place more emphasis on functional safety and resilience, w... » read more

Heterogeneous Cache Coherence Requires A Common Internal Protocol


Machine learning and artificial intelligence systems are driving the need for systems-on-chip containing tens or even hundreds of heterogeneous processing cores. As these systems expand in size and complexity, it becomes too difficult to manage data flow solely through software means. An approach that simplifies software while improving performance and power consumption is to implement hardware... » read more

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