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Advanced Features Of High-Speed Digital I/O devices: Hardware Compare


This paper describes how to use Hardware compare on the NI-HSDIO devices. The hardware compare feature allows users to perform digital comparisons of data on device itself. This allows for real time hardware comparison, which is not possible if data is transferred back to the host computer. This allows for tests such as Bit Error Rate Testing (BERT) and digital waveform comparisons. To read ... » read more

Advanced Features Of High Speed Digital I/O Devices: Double Data Rate


As clock speeds and data rates continue to increase, designers of digital integrated circuits are creating new ways to maximize the rate of data being sent into and out of digital devices. One such method is known as double data rate (DDR). With single data rate (SDR) devices, data is latched on either the rising or falling edges of the sample clock. A DDR device latches data on both the rising... » read more

Why Choose NI For PMUs And Wide Area Monitoring


PMUs have helped foster high speed data gathering from the grid with some utilities capturing phasor data as fast as 1 sample per cycle. As adoption and experience with PMU data grows, new possibilities emerge to help better monitor and control the dynamic health of a utility grid. PMUs built on NI technology have several advantageous features that can help utilities, power systems engineers, a... » read more

Best Practices For Saving Measurement Data


You collect data to make decisions. However, an inefficient file format may cause problems when analyzing your data. The key to choosing a file format for your application involves thinking about the current system requirements and how the file can adapt for future application needs. To help you organize your file format for your application, use the guide and checklist of questions: • Ho... » read more

Own Test Architecture To Meet Ever-Growing Test Coverage


Automotive consumers worldwide are increasingly basing their purchase decisions on the vehicle’s user interface, or human-machine interface (HMI). An in-vehicle infotainment (IVI) or car multimedia system, together with a digital cockpit, heavily influences how drivers and passengers feel about vehicles. And while HMI-related automotive electronics account for 70 percent of all in-car code, e... » read more

The Basics of Amplitude Modulation


Modulation is the process of varying a higher frequency carrier wave to transmit information. Though it is theoretically possible to transmit baseband signals (or information) without modulating it, it is far more efficient to send data by modulating it onto a higher frequency "carrier wave." Higher frequency waves require smaller antennas, use the available bandwidth more efficiently, and are ... » read more

Design of Phased-Array Antennas for MIMO & Beam-Steering Applications


This white paper explores basic phased-array theory and the design considerations behind next-generation antenna systems. It examines the new capabilities recently added to the NI AWR Design Environment platform for developing the RF front-end hardware supporting these new antenna systems, which must be optimized for performance, reliability, compactness, and cost. Click here to read more. » read more

Using a Fault Insertion and Current Sensing Unit


When testing embedded software on mission critical electronic control units, like those used in automobiles or aircraft, it is important to validate the behavior with external faults for example if the integrity of the signals to the controller are compromised. The SLSC-12251/2 products from NI are designed for this purpose, these modules can be inserted into the signal path between the data ac... » read more

Peak Signal-To-Noise Ratio As An Image Quality Metric


The term peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is an expression for the ratio between the maximum possible value (power) of a signal and the power of distorting noise that affects the quality of its representation. Because many signals have a very wide dynamic range, (ratio between the largest and smallest possible values of a changeable quantity) the PSNR is usually expressed in terms of the logar... » read more

Design, System Integration and Testing of Radar Systems


This article discusses some of the fundamental research and development challenges in both the digital and RF/millimeter wave domains (such as waveform generation, receiver algorithms and transmit/receive front ends) and addresses current and future directions in design, system integration and test. Radar applications are becoming more diverse and commercialization is accelerating due to sig... » read more

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