Chord Signaling by Generalizing Differential Signals

Chord Signaling uses a multi-wire signaling approach that generalizes differential signaling. It sends more bits of data over more wires while keeping all of the desirable properties of differential signaling.


Chord signaling is a multi-wire signaling approach that is a generalization of differential signaling.

With differential signaling, a single bit is transmitted on two correlated wires. In Chord signaling, n bits are transmitted on n+1 correlated wires. The number of wires, the Chordal code and the design of the multi-input comparators together.

Companies connect chips in electronic devices via multiple wires. This is because the required throughput immediately saturates the available bandwidth of one, (or even a few) wires.

Chord signaling coordinates the traffic on these already connected wires to better combat noise. This increases the signal to noise ratio (SNR), which in turn both:

  • Increases power efficiency, and
  • Increases transmission speed

It is a generalization of already existing differential signaling technology, which is becoming obsolete due to faster communication requirements over more challenging channels.

Chord signaling theory defaults to differential signaling when transmitting data over two wires. When we increase the number of wires however, we are able to keep the same advantages of differential signaling whilst improving pin efficiency.

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