Miles Wide And High Security


Talk about security in autonomous vehicles seems to have subsided. It shouldn't, because the problem is far from solved. In fact, it's not just one problem. It's layers upon layers of problems spread out across all roadways, technology design houses, IP developers, network infrastructure, and the entire supply chain. And even though one vehicle's security may be bulletproof, it may be no... » read more

How Much Data Can Be Pushed Through Copper Wires?


As the amount of digital data grows, so do requirements on the speed of the transmission at all levels of the transmission chain—between dies in a shared package, between packaged chips inside a device, and between devices. The communication channels encountered at every stage of this communication are different in nature. Those between dies in a shared package, or between packaged chips in a... » read more

Chord Signaling by Generalizing Differential Signals


Chord signaling is a multi-wire signaling approach that is a generalization of differential signaling. With differential signaling, a single bit is transmitted on two correlated wires. In Chord signaling, n bits are transmitted on n+1 correlated wires. The number of wires, the Chordal code and the design of the multi-input comparators together. Background Companies connect chips in elect... » read more

The Route To 5G


The mobile phone has seen explosive growth over the last two decades to become an essential part of our everyday lives. Right from the outset, ARM has been at the heart of these devices enabling ever more sophisticated capabilities whilst maintaining a focus on maximizing battery life through industry leading power efficiency. The complexity of smartphones is not often fully appreciated, with ... » read more

Mobile Edge Computing For The IoE


More attention is being focused on the edges of networks as the IoE begins taking hold. The reason is that the current wireless infrastructure is inadequate for handling the billions of endpoints that will make up the IoE. So for the IoE to realize its full potential, it will either require some sort of add-on infrastructure or a new discovery in physics. Edge networks were not always suc... » read more

GridComm: Smarter Grids


Streetlights were considered a big improvement over gas lamps when they were first introduced in the late 19th century. And since then, not much has changed, other than the addition of more streetlights as cities and towns grew and different kinds of bulbs. But streetlights do account for about 40% of a city's electricity budget, which can amount to tens of millions of dollars a month for la... » read more

Super Wi-Fi For The IoE


From time to time the term “white space” may have popped up in wireless spectrum discussions. Generally, white space describes parts of the licensed radio spectrum that are unassigned, unused, only used part time by the licensees, or not used by them in certain geographic locations. Virtually every country in the world has some of this. Most of this exists in the television spectrum, and is... » read more

Inside Mesh Networks


Mesh networks could revolutionize communications in the future. Independent of the Internet we know today, wireless mesh networks (WMN) allow both ad-hoc and fixed wireless “nodes” to form a communications net that can become a very powerful information sharing hub. The idea is that all devices, both user-controlled and autonomous, would be open to act as relay points for the transmissio... » read more

A Primer For The 802.XX Physical Layer


This is the second installment of the 802.XX for the IoE series of articles. The first one was published in the August issue and addressed the Media Access Control (MAC) layer. In this article, we will examine the elements of the physical (PHY) layer of the 802.11 protocol stack. For reference, the protocol stack is shown in figure 1. The best designs, like everything else, are built on a so... » read more

BLE For The IoT


Bluetooth low-energy (BLE) is one of the emerging disruptive technologies for the IoT. Also referred to as Bluetooth low-power and Bluetooth smart, as the Bluetooth SIG is calling it, this technology will enable the next level of IoT vertical devices, such as medical devices, home automation, retail, wearables, and much more. For consumers, it comes down to the Internet of Your Things (Io... » read more

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