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Architecting Interposers


An interposer performs a similar function as a printed circuit board (PCB), but when the interposer is moved inside a package the impact is significant. Neither legacy PCB nor IC design tools can fully perform the necessary design and analysis tasks. But perhaps even more important, adding an interposer to a design may require organizational changes. Today, leading-edge companies have shown ... » read more

Power Impact At The Physical Layer Causes Downstream Effects


Data movement is rapidly emerging as one of the top design challenges, and it is being complicated by new chip architectures and physical effects caused by increasing density at advanced nodes and in multi-chip systems. Until the introduction of the latest revs of high-bandwidth memory, as well as GDDR6, memory was considered the next big bottleneck. But other compute bottlenecks have been e... » read more

A Primer For The 802.XX Physical Layer


This is the second installment of the 802.XX for the IoE series of articles. The first one was published in the August issue and addressed the Media Access Control (MAC) layer. In this article, we will examine the elements of the physical (PHY) layer of the 802.11 protocol stack. For reference, the protocol stack is shown in figure 1. The best designs, like everything else, are built on a so... » read more