Inverse lithography technology: 30 years from concept to practical, full-chip reality

Published in the Journal of Micro/Nanopatterning, Materials, and Metrology, Aug. 31, 2021. Read the full technical paper here (open access). Abstract In lithography, optical proximity and process bias/effects need to be corrected to achieve the best wafer print. Efforts to correct for these effects started with a simple bias, adding a hammer head in line-ends to prevent line-end shortening. T... » read more