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More Errors, More Correction in Memories


As memory bit cells of any type become smaller, bit error rates increase due to lower margins and process variation. This can be dealt with using error correction to account for and correct bit errors, but as more sophisticated error-correction codes (ECC) are used, it requires more silicon area, which in turn drives up the cost. Given this trend, the looming question is whether the cost of ... » read more

What Designers Need to Know About Error Correction Code (ECC) In DDR Memories


As with any electronic system, errors in the memory subsystem are possible due to design failures/defects or electrical noise in any one of the components. These errors are classified as either hard-errors (caused by design failures) or soft-errors (caused by system noise or memory array bit flips due to alpha particles, etc.). To handle these memory errors during runtime, the memory subsyst... » read more

Taming Novel NVM Non-Determinism


New memory technologies may have non-deterministic characteristics that add calibration to the test burden — and may require recalibration during their lifetime. Many of these memories are in development as a result of the search for a storage-class memory (SCM) technology that can bridge the gap between larger, slower memories like flash and faster DRAM memory. There are several approache... » read more