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Data Integrity For JEDEC DRAM Memories


With the DRAM fabrication advancing from 1x to 1y to 1z and further to 1a, 1b, and 1c nodes along with the DRAM device speeds going up to 8533 for LPDDR5 and 8800 for DDR5, data integrity is becoming a really important issue that the OEMs and other users have to consider as part of the system that relies on the correctness of data being stored in the DRAMs for system to work as designed. I... » read more

Post Quantum Cryptography Is Coming


Quantum computing has made big advances in recent years and experts agree that quantum computers capable of breaking 2048-bit RSA or 256-bit ECC will be built — it’s just a matter of time. In this white paper, we discuss the security algorithms NIST has selected for Post Quantum Cryptography (PQC) and their instantiation in Rambus security products. Download this white paper to learn: ... » read more

DRAM Chips That Employ On-Die Error Correction & Related Reliability Techniques


This new PhD thesis paper titled "Enabling Effective Error Mitigation in Memory Chips That Use On-Die Error-Correcting Codes" from ETH Zurich researcher Minesh Patel won the IEEE  William C. Carter Award in June 2022. Abstract "Improvements in main memory storage density are primarily driven by process technology scaling, which negatively impacts reliability by exacerbating various circu... » read more

A Low-Power BLS12-381 Pairing Cryptoprocessor for Internet-of-Things Security Applications


Abstract: "We present the first BLS12-381 elliptic-curve pairing cryptoprocessor for Internet-of-Things (IoT) security applications. Efficient finite-field arithmetic and algorithm-architecture co-optimizations together enable two orders of magnitude energy savings. We implement several countermeasures against timing and power side-channel attacks. Our cryptoprocessor is programmable to provid... » read more

A high speed processor for elliptic curve cryptography over NIST prime field


Abstract "Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), as one of the public key cryptography systems, has been widely applied to many security applications. It is challenging to implement a scalar multiplication (SM) operation which has the highest computational complexity in ECC. In this study, we propose a hardware processor which achieves high speed and high security for ECC. We first present a three... » read more

HARP: Practically and Effectively Identifying Uncorrectable Errors in Memory Chips That Use On-Die Error-Correcting Codes


Abstract: "State-of-the-art techniques for addressing scaling-related main memory errors identify and repair bits that are at risk of error from within the memory controller. Unfortunately, modern main memory chips internally use on-die error correcting codes (on-die ECC) that obfuscate the memory controller's view of errors, complicating the process of identifying at-risk bits (i.e., error pr... » read more

More Errors, More Correction in Memories


As memory bit cells of any type become smaller, bit error rates increase due to lower margins and process variation. This can be dealt with using error correction to account for and correct bit errors, but as more sophisticated error-correction codes (ECC) are used, it requires more silicon area, which in turn drives up the cost. Given this trend, the looming question is whether the cost of ... » read more

Targeting Redundancy In ICs


Technology developed for one purpose is often applicable to other areas, but organizational silos can get in the way of capitalizing on it until there is a clear cost advantage. Consider memory. All memories are fabricated with spare rows and columns that are swapped in when a device fails manufacturing test. "This is a common method to increase the yield of a device, based on how much memor... » read more

What Designers Need to Know About Error Correction Code (ECC) In DDR Memories


As with any electronic system, errors in the memory subsystem are possible due to design failures/defects or electrical noise in any one of the components. These errors are classified as either hard-errors (caused by design failures) or soft-errors (caused by system noise or memory array bit flips due to alpha particles, etc.). To handle these memory errors during runtime, the memory subsyst... » read more

When You Can’t Afford To Scrimp On System Reliability


Failure happens, whether we like it or not. What’s important is to be prepared for failure to occur, which involves putting in place measures that allow us to quickly address or resolve the problem. But not all failures are created equally. For example, a laptop that you use daily might experience occasional glitches. If it’s well-designed, you can simply reset the machine to get it back to... » read more

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