Validation Of Smart Sensors For AI-Based Condition Monitoring In Industry


By André Schneider and Martin Lehmann Industry has challenging requirements for the quality and reliability of the distributed smart sensors used in condition monitoring. As a result of digitalization and the increasing use of AI-based monitoring solutions, we can expect an increase in demand for systematic, efficient design and validation processes. In the future, a product’s journey fro... » read more

Trouble Ahead For IC Verification


Verification complexity is roughly the square of design complexity, but until recently verification success rates have remained fairly consistent. That's beginning to change. There are troubling signs that verification is collapsing under the load. The first-time success rate fell (see figure 1) in the last survey conducted by Wilson Research, on behalf of Siemens EDA, in 2022. A new survey ... » read more

Efficient Electronics


Attention nowadays has turned to the energy consumption of systems that run on electricity. At the moment, the discussion is focused on electricity consumption in data centers: if this continues to rise at its current rate, it will account for a significant proportion of global electricity consumption in the future. Yet there are other, less visible electricity consumers whose power needs are a... » read more

Challenges With Chiplets And Power Delivery


Chiplets hold the potential to deliver the same PPA benefits as an SoC, but with many more features and options that are possible on a reticle-constrained die. If chiplets live up to the hype, they will deliver what is essentially mass customization, democratizing and speeding the delivery of complex chips across a broad array of markets. Today, the focus has been on die-to-die interfaces, but ... » read more

Architecting Chips For High-Performance Computing


The world’s leading hyperscaler cloud data center companies — Amazon, Google, Meta, Microsoft, Oracle, and Akamai — are launching heterogeneous, multi-core architectures specifically for the cloud, and the impact is being felt in high-performance CPU development across the chip industry. It's unlikely that any these chips will ever be sold commercially. They are optimized for specific ... » read more

Memory On Logic: The Good And Bad


The chip industry is progressing rapidly toward 3D-ICs, but a simpler step has been shown to provide gains equivalent to a whole node advancement — extracting distributed memories and placing them on top of logic. Memory on logic significantly reduces the distance between logic and directly associated memory. This can increase performance by 22% and reduce power by 36%, according to one re... » read more

Using AI/ML To Minimize IR Drop


IR drop is becoming a much bigger problem as technology nodes scale and more components are packed into advanced packages. This is partly a result of physics, but it's also the result of how the design flow is structured. In most cases, AI/ML can help. The underlying problem is that moving to advanced process nodes, and now 3D-ICs, is driving current densities higher, while the power envelop... » read more

Trusted Electronics: Current And Future Developments


In today’s world, we encounter electronics increasingly as complex hardware/software systems, such as those in vehicles, machines, and communication devices. These systems are characterized by dramatic increases in functionality in areas like environment sensing, stages of autonomy, and the installation of future updates. Developing and manufacturing such electronic systems today requires glo... » read more

Low-Power Relaxation Oscillator With Temperature-Compensated Thyristor Decision Elements


This paper presents a low-power 140 kHz relaxation oscillator (ROSC) for low-frequency clock generators and timers. In voltage-mode ROSCs, unavoidable shunt current consumption results from voltage slewing at the integration capacitor. The proposed circuit employs CMOS thyristor-based decision elements which effectively reduce shunt currents by exploiting internal positive feedback. A complemen... » read more

NoCs In 3D Space


A network on chip (NoC) has become an essential piece of technology that enables the complexity of chips to keep growing, but when designs go 3D, or when third-party chiplets become pervasive, it's not clear how NoCs will evolve or what the impact will be on chiplet architectures. A NoC enables data to move between heterogeneous computing elements, while at the same time minimizing the resou... » read more

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