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SOT-MRAM-based CIM architecture for a CNN model


New research paper "In-Memory Computing Architecture for a Convolutional Neural Network Based on Spin Orbit Torque MRAM", from National Taiwan University, Feng Chia University, Chung Yuan Christian University. Abstract "Recently, numerous studies have investigated computing in-memory (CIM) architectures for neural networks to overcome memory bottlenecks. Because of its low delay, high energ... » read more

CXL and OMI: Competing or Complementary?


System designers are looking at any ideas they can find to increase memory bandwidth and capacity, focusing on everything from improvements in memory to new types of memory. But higher-level architectural changes can help to fulfill both needs, even as memory types are abstracted away from CPUs. Two new protocols are helping to make this possible, CXL and OMI. But there is a looming question... » read more

A crossbar array of magnetoresistive memory devices for in-memory computing


Samsung has demonstrated the world’s first in-memory computing technology based on MRAM. Samsung has a paper on the subject in Nature. This paper showcases Samsung’s effort to merge memory and system semiconductors for next-generation artificial intelligence (AI) chips. Abstract "Implementations of artificial neural networks that borrow analogue techniques could potentially offer low-po... » read more

SOT-MRAM To Challenge SRAM


In an era of new non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies, yet another variation is poised to join the competition — a new version of MRAM called spin-orbit torque, or SOT-MRAM. What makes this one particularly interesting is the possibility that someday it could supplant SRAM arrays in systems-on-chip (SoCs) and other integrated circuits. The key advantages of SOT-MRAM technology are the pr... » read more

Outlook: DRAM, NAND, Next-Gen Memory


Jim Handy, director at Objective Analysis, sat down with Semiconductor Engineering to talk about the 3D NAND, DRAM and next-generation memory markets. What follows are excerpts of that discussion. SE: How would you characterize the NAND market thus far in 2021? Handy: All chips are seeing unusual strength in 2021, but NAND flash and DRAM are doing what they usually do by exhibiting more e... » read more

More Errors, More Correction in Memories


As memory bit cells of any type become smaller, bit error rates increase due to lower margins and process variation. This can be dealt with using error correction to account for and correct bit errors, but as more sophisticated error-correction codes (ECC) are used, it requires more silicon area, which in turn drives up the cost. Given this trend, the looming question is whether the cost of ... » read more

Imaging Of Overlay And Alignment Markers Under Opaque Layers Using Picosecond Laser Acoustic Measurements


Optically opaque materials present a series of challenges for alignment and overlay in the semi-damascene process flow or after the processing of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) of a Magnetic Random-Access Memory (MRAM). The overlay and alignment of a lithographically defined pattern on top of the pattern and the underlying layer is fundamental to device operation in all multi-layer patterne... » read more

Reliable And Efficient Compact Models For Scalable MTJ Simulation


By Fernando García Redondo, Pranay Prabhat, and Mudit Bhargava Since its discovery in 1975, Tunnel-Magneto-Resistance (TMR) has been actively investigated. From the 2000s, advances in process technologies have made the miniaturization of Magnetic Random Access Memories (MRAMs) based on TMR devices possible, together with integration into traditional CMOS processes. Introducing magneti... » read more

New Memories Add New Faults


New non-volatile memories (NVM) bring new opportunities for changing how we use memory in systems-on-chip (SoCs), but they also add new challenges for making sure they will work as expected. These new memory types – primarily MRAM and ReRAM – rely on unique physical phenomena for storing data. That means that new test sequences and fault models may be needed before they can be released t... » read more

Convolutional Compaction-Based MRAM Fault Diagnosis


Abstract: "Spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memories (STT-MRAMs) are gradually superseding conventional SRAMs as last-level cache in System-on-Chip designs. Their manufacturing process includes trimming a reference resistance in STT-MRAM modules to reliably determine the logic values of 0 and 1 during read operations. Typically, an on-chip trimming routine consists of mult... » read more

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