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64-Bit RISC-V Microprocessor Delivers New Options For IoT Edge Development


Global and rapidly expanding IoT edge devices are becoming increasingly important for connecting various sensors to the cloud via networks. IoT edge devices are progressively integrating 64-bit microprocessors capable of running Linux and similar high-performance operating systems. Moreover, recent import and export regulation changes have produced a need for choices in CPU architecture for mic... » read more

Scaling, Advanced Packaging, Or Both


Chipmakers are facing a growing number of challenges and tradeoffs at the leading edge, where the cost of process shrinks is already exorbitant and rising. While it's theoretically possible to scale digital logic to 10 angstroms (1nm) and below, the likelihood of a planar SoC being developed at that nodes appears increasingly unlikely. This is hardly shocking in an industry that has heard pr... » read more

Effect of Different Frequency Scaling Levels on Memory in Regard to Total Power Consumption in Mobile MPSoC


New technical paper titled "CPU-GPU-Memory DVFS for Power-Efficient MPSoC in Mobile Cyber Physical Systems" from researchers at University of Essex, Nosh Technologies, and University of Southampton. Abstract "Most modern mobile cyber-physical systems such as smartphones come equipped with multi-processor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs) with variant computing capacity both to cater to performance r... » read more

How Inferencing Differs From Training in Machine Learning Applications


Machine learning (ML)-based approaches to system development employ a fundamentally different style of programming than historically used in computer science. This approach uses example data to train a model to enable the machine to learn how to perform a task. ML training is highly iterative with each new piece of training data generating trillions of operations. The iterative nature of the tr... » read more

What Is An xPU?


Almost every day there is an announcement about a new processor architecture, and it is given a three-letter acronym — TPU, IPU, NPU. But what really distinguishes them? Are there really that many unique processor architectures, or is something else happening? In 2018, John L. Hennessy and David A. Patterson delivered the Turing lecture entitled, "A New Golden Age for Computer Architecture... » read more

Changing Server Architectures In The Data Center


Data centers are undergoing a fundamental shift to boost server utilization and improve efficiency, optimizing architectures so available compute resources can be leveraged wherever they are needed. Traditionally, data centers were built with racks of servers, each server providing computing, memory, interconnect, and possibly acceleration resources. But when a server is selected, some of th... » read more

HBM3: Big Impact On Chip Design


An insatiable demand for bandwidth in everything from high-performance computing to AI training, gaming, and automotive applications is fueling the development of the next generation of high-bandwidth memory. HBM3 will bring a 2X bump in bandwidth and capacity per stack, as well as some other benefits. What was once considered a "slow and wide" memory technology to reduce signal traffic dela... » read more

Software-Hardware Co-Design Becomes Real


For the past 20 years, the industry has sought to deploy hardware/software co-design concepts. While it is making progress, software/hardware co-design appears to have a much brighter future. In order to understand the distinction between the two approaches, it is important to define some of the basics. Hardware/software co-design is essentially a bottom-up process, where hardware is deve... » read more

Vector Runahead


Abstract: "The memory wall places a significant limit on performance for many modern workloads. These applications feature complex chains of dependent, indirect memory accesses, which cannot be picked up by even the most advanced microarchitectural prefetchers. The result is that current out-of-order superscalar processors spend the majority of their time stalled. While it is possible to bui... » read more

Optimize Physical Verification Cost Of Ownership With Elastic CPU Management


For physical verification, advanced process technology nodes create implementation challenges. Design sizes have gotten larger and required rules from foundries have become more numerous in count (thousands) and more complex (hundreds of discrete steps). For these reasons, physical verification tools have been able to span these jobs not only across multiple CPUs on a single physical compute ho... » read more

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