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Integrated Ethernet PCS And PHY IP For 400G/800G Hyperscale Data Centers


Ethernet has become the primary network protocol of choice for the required server-to-server communication in hyperscale data centers, as it allows hyperscalers to disaggregate network switches and install their software operating systems independently. Ethernet enables cost-effective, dense, open switches and networking technologies which reduce cost/power per bit with transistor scaling. Ethe... » read more

Accelerating 5G Baseband With Adaptive SoCs: Part II


In my previous blog, we discussed 5G split architectures with focus on the widely adopted option 7-2 split. In this article, we will cover the implementation of the fronthaul and L1 Hi-PHY for 5G base stations. The 5G distributed unit (DU) can be implemented to process fronthaul data with O-RAN processing and partial offload for Hi-PHY processing which includes the LDPC encoder, LDPC decoder an... » read more

The Rise Of SmartNICs


Network interface cards (NICs) have been on the market since shortly after the first PCs in the mid-1980s. However, over the past few years, we’ve seen the emergence of SmartNICs. What is a SmartNIC? The most basic definition of a SmartNIC is simply a programmable NIC. Others have overloaded the concept by heaping vast amounts of silicon and firmware into their implementations. A good work... » read more

Network Interface Card Evolution


Longer chip lifetimes, more data to process and move, and a slowdown in the rate of processor improvements has created a series of constantly shifting bottlenecks. Kartik Srinivasan, director of data center marketing at Xilinx, looks at one of those bottlenecks, the network interface card, why continuous enhancements and changes will be required, and how to extend the life of NICs as the networ... » read more

2021 Trends For Data Centers, AI, And More


Previously, we took out our crystal ball and looked at some of the trends, technologies and changes that we expect to be embraced by the auto industry in 2021. Today, we are shining a light on technologies and trends that we predict will have a significant impact on the 5G, data center, AI and software, healthcare, and IIoT markets this year and beyond. For wired and wireless networking eq... » read more

System Design For Next-Generation Hyperscale Data Centers


As we are in the process of hyperscaling the large volumes of data that our devices and sensors create, processing this data along the way at far and near edges, and transmitting the hard-to-imagine volumes of data through networks to data centers for processing, the data center itself is undergoing a fundamental shift with new networking and architecture co-design opportunities. In a previous ... » read more

Emerging Apps And Challenges For Packaging


Advanced packaging is playing a bigger role and becoming a more viable option to develop new system-level chip designs, but it also presents chipmakers with a confusing array of options and sometimes a hefty price tag. Automotive, servers, smartphones and other systems have embraced advanced packaging in one form or another. For other applications, it's overkill, and a simpler commodity pack... » read more

Secure Networking Basics: MACsec, IPsec, And SSL/TLS/DTLS


The MACsec, IPsec and SSL/TLS/DTLS protocols are the primary means of securing data in motion (communicated between connected devices). These protocols can be anchored in hardware or implemented in software as part of an end-to-end security architecture. This white paper provides fundamental information on each of these protocols including their interrelationships and use cases. ... » read more

An Expanding Application Space For GDDR6 Memory


The origins of graphics double data rate (GDDR) memory can be traced to the rise of 3D gaming on PCs and consoles. The first GPUs used single data rate (SDR) and double data rate (DDR) DRAM, the same memory used for CPU main memory. The quest for higher frame rates at higher resolutions drove the need for a graphics-workload specific memory solution. The commercial success of gaming PCs and con... » read more

5G Brings New Verification Challenges


In the summer of 2018, Siemens raised a few eyebrows within the verification community when we acquired Sarokal, based in Finland. What that community did not piece together at the time was that Sarokal is the leader in 5G testing and has a seasoned team of people that have work closely with leading telecommunication companies to provide hardware and software solutions for fronthaul system test... » read more

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