32GT/s PCI Express Design Considerations

Today’s networking and rapidly emerging artificial intelligence (AI) applications are requiring more bandwidth in accelerators and GPUs, as well as faster interconnects to transmit and receive greater amounts of data. Towards the middle of 2017 the PCI-SIG industry consortium announced its latest specification, PCIe 5.0, which raised the data rate from 16GT/s to 32GT/s and doubled the link... » read more

GDDR6 PHYs: From The Data Center To Self-Driving Cars

The demand for ever-increasing bandwidth has resulted in a growing interest in GDDR across a number of market verticals, including data centers and the automotive sector. As an example of the former, deep learning applications require ever-increasing speed and bandwidth memory solutions in the data center. In deep learning and other emerging technologies, GDDR memory can help companies addre... » read more

Noise Abatement

[getkc id="285" kc_name="Noise"] is a fact of life. Almost everything we do creates noise as a by-product and quite often what is a signal to one party is noise to another. Noise cannot be eliminated. It must be managed. But is noise becoming a larger issue in chips as the technology nodes get smaller and packaging becomes more complex? For some, the answer is a very strong yes, while for ot... » read more

The Insatiable Need For Bandwidth

With the push for more and more Wi-Fi bandwidth, the WLAN industry, its standards committees, and the Ethernet switch manufacturers are having a hard time keeping up with the need for more speed. As the industry prepares for upgrading to 802.11ac Wave 2 and the promise of 11ax, the ability of Ethernet over existing copper wiring to meet the increased transfer speeds is being challenged. And wha... » read more

The Hunt For A Low-Power PHY

Physics has been on the side of chipmakers throughout most of the lifetime of [getkc id="74" comment="Moore's Law"], but when dealing with the world outside the chip, physics is working against them. Pushing data at ever-faster rates through boards and systems consumes increasing amounts of power, but the power budget for chips has not been increasing. Could chips be constrained by their int... » read more

HBM2: It’s All About The PHY

HBM DRAM is currently used in graphics, high-performance computing (HPC), server, networking and client applications. HBM, says JEDEC HBM Task Group Chairman Barry Wagner, provides a “compelling solution” to reduce the IO power and memory footprint for the most demanding applications. Recent examples of second-generation HBM deployment include NVIDIA’s Quadro GP100 GPU which is paired wit... » read more

The Challenges Of Designing An HBM2 PHY

Originally targeted at the graphics industry, HBM continues to gain momentum in the server and networking markets as system designers work to move higher bandwidth closer to the CPU. Expanding DRAM capacity – which boosts overall system performance – allows data centers to maximize local DRAM storage for wide throughput. HBM DRAM architecture effectively increases system memory bandwidth... » read more

802.XX And The IoE

Ever since the first 802.11 standard was published in 1997, it has evolved to become the de facto protocol for much of the wireless networking across a wide range of devices and implementations. Today the protocol family includes 802.b 802.11a, 802.11g, 802.11n, and 802.11ac, respectively. Some of these will play a very important role in the IoE. There are other 802.xx protocols (such as 802.15... » read more

One PHY Does Not Fit All

Consumers expect their battery-operated mobile devices to be faster, smaller and more reliable while providing greater functionality at a reduced cost. Most of all, consumers demand longer battery life and 24/7 access to data. To meet these demands, consumer system-on-a-chip (SoC) designers must make tradeoffs between features, performance, power and cost. Enterprise SoC designers have their... » read more

Collaboration Accelerates Moore’s Law

Moore's Law dictates that the number of transistors in dense, integrated circuits will double approximately every two years. Maintaining this pace of scaling, however, has become increasingly difficult given the ever-increasing complexity inherent with new chip starts. Additionally, the cost of using leading-edge process technology is prohibitively expensive. As a result, collaboration amon... » read more

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