A Chiplet-Based Fully Homomorphic Encryption Accelerator


A technical paper titled “CiFHER: A Chiplet-Based FHE Accelerator with a Resizable Structure” was published by researchers at Seoul National University.


“Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) is in the spotlight as a definitive solution for privacy, but the high computational overhead of FHE poses a challenge to its practical adoption. Although prior studies have attempted to design ASIC accelerators to mitigate the overhead, their designs require excessive amounts of chip resources (e.g., areas) to contain and process massive data for FHE operations.

We propose CiFHER, a chiplet-based FHE accelerator with a resizable structure, to tackle the challenge with a cost-effective multi-chip module (MCM) design. First, we devise a flexible architecture of a chiplet core whose configuration can be adjusted to conform to the global organization of chiplets and design constraints. The distinctive feature of our core is a recomposable functional unit providing varying computational throughput for number-theoretic transform (NTT), the most dominant function in FHE. Then, we establish generalized data mapping methodologies to minimize the network overhead when organizing the chips into the MCM package in a tiled manner, which becomes a significant bottleneck due to the technology constraints of MCMs. Also, we analyze the effectiveness of various algorithms, including a novel limb duplication algorithm, on the MCM architecture. A detailed evaluation shows that a CiFHER package composed of 4 to 64 compact chiplets provides performance comparable to state-of-the-art monolithic ASIC FHE accelerators with significantly lower package-wide power consumption while reducing the area of a single core to as small as 4.28mm2.”

Find the technical paper here. Published August 2023 (preprint).

Kim, Sangpyo, Jongmin Kim, and Jaeyoung Choi. “CiFHER: A Chiplet-Based FHE Accelerator with a Resizable Structure.” arXiv preprint arXiv:2308.04890 (2023).

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