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Making PUFs Even More Secure


As security has become a must-have in most systems, hardware roots of trust (HRoTs) have started appearing in many chips. Critical to an HRoT is the ability to authenticate and to create keys – ideally from a reliable source that is unviewable and immutable. “We see hardware roots of trust deployed in two use models — providing a foundation to securely start a system, and enabling a se... » read more

Thinner Channels With 2D Semiconductors


Moving to future nodes will require more than just smaller features. At 3/2nm and beyond, new materials are likely to be added, but which ones and exactly when will depend upon an explosion of material science research underway at universities and companies around the globe. With field-effect transistors, a voltage applied to the gate creates an electric field in the channel, bending the ban... » read more

A Novel PUF Using Stochastic Short-Term Memory Time of Oxide-Based RRAM for Embedded Applications


Abstract: "RRAM suffers from poor retention with short-term memory time when using low compliance current for programing. However, the short-term memory time exhibits ideal randomness, which can be exploited as an entropy source for physically unclonable function (PUF). In this work, we demonstrated a novel PUF utilizing the stochastic short-term memory time of oxide-based RRAM. The proposed P... » read more

A Machine-Learning-Resistant 3D PUF with 8-layer Stacking Vertical RRAM and 0.014% Bit Error Rate Using In-Cell Stabilization Scheme for IoT Security Applications


Abstract: "In this work, we propose and demonstrate a multi-layer 3-dimensional (3D) vertical RRAM (VRRAM) PUF with in-cell stabilization scheme to improve both cost efficiency and reliability. An 8-layer VRRAM array was manufactured with excellent uniformity and good endurance of >10 7 . Apart from the variation in RRAM resistance, enhanced randomness is obtained thanks to the parasitic IR... » read more

Power/Performance Bits: Feb. 8


Transparent sensor Researchers at Osaka University created a thin, flexible, transparent sensor using silver nanowire networks. High-resolution printing was used to fabricate the centimeter-scale cross-aligned silver nanowire arrays, with reproducible feature sizes from 20 to 250 micrometers. As a proof-of-concept for functionality, they used their arrays to detect electrophysiological signals... » read more

Power/Performance Bits: Dec. 3


Waking up IoT devices Researchers at UC San Diego developed an ultra-low power wake-up receiver chip that aims to reduce the power consumption of sensors, wearables, and Internet of Things devices that only need to communicate information periodically. "The problem now is that these devices do not know exactly when to synchronize with the network, so they periodically wake up to do this eve... » read more

Power/Performance Bits: Sept. 19


Healing perovskites A team from the University of Cambridge, MIT, University of Oxford, University of Bath, and Delft University of Technology discovered a way to heal defects in perovskite solar cells by exposing them to light and just the right amount of humidity. While perovskites show promise for low-cost, efficient photovoltaics, tiny defects in the crystalline structure, called traps,... » read more

Power/Performance Bits: Nov. 1


New approach to switches According to the National Resource Defense Council, Americans waste up to $19 billion annually in electricity costs due to always-on digital devices in the home that suck power even when they are turned off. With that in mind, a team from University of Utah devised a new kind of switch for electronic circuits that uses solid electrolytes such as copper sulfide to ... » read more

Manufacturing Bits: Aug. 16


Safer drinking water Two-dimensional materials are gaining steam in the R&D labs. 2D materials include graphene, boron nitride (BN) and the transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). These materials could one day enable future field-effect transistors (FETs). One TMD, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), is also generating interest in other fields. Molybdenum disulfide consists of two elements--moly... » read more