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Using Periodic Calibration Of Antennas to Ensure the Ongoing Performance Of OTA Systems


Seen or unseen, antennas are essential to virtually every aspect of our connected world. In any over-the-air application—communication, navigation, radar, and so on—signal quality is heavily dependent on the performance of the transmitting and receiving antennas. In addition, when testing any of today’s electronic devices for electromagnetic interference (EMI) and electromagnetic compatib... » read more

Data Security Challenges In Automotive


Automakers are scrambling to prevent security breaches and data hacks in new vehicles while simultaneously adding new and increasingly autonomous features into vehicles that can open the door to new vulnerabilities. These two goals are often at odds. As with security in any complex system, nothing is ever completely secure. But even getting a handle on this multilayered issue is a challenge.... » read more

Will PAYGO Shake Up How We Pay for Chips?


System builders are used to buying integrated circuits on a simple transactional basis — the chip has a price, and that’s what you pay. But some application spaces may have a wide variety of capabilities that need hardware support, and each feature may not be used for every instance. Traditionally, one would design different chips for different feature mixes and price points. But a new p... » read more

Changes In Auto Architectures


Automotive architectures are changing from a driver-centric model to one where technology supplements and in some cases replaces the driver. Hans Adlkofer, senior vice president and head of the Automotive Systems Group at Infineon, looks at the different levels of automation in a vehicle, what’s involved in the shift from domain to zonal architectures, why a mix of processors will be required... » read more

SoC Verification From Pre-Fabrication To The Over-the-Air Update


The recent new of attacks on system infrastructures serves to highlight that hardware vulnerabilities in the supply chain are not only possible but inevitable if proper precautions are ignored. Verification throughout the entire supply chain is necessary to ensure the safety and security of hardware. Starting as early as the pre-fabrication stage, vulnerabilities, if left unchecked, can be an o... » read more

System-on-Chip Architecture For Autonomous Driving Systems In Electric Vehicles


English inventor Thomas Parker introduced the first production electric car in 1884. Slower speeds and shorter ranges limited the electric cars of that era. By the early-to-mid 20th century, gas-powered cars were cheaper to operate, able to travel further and faster than their electric counterparts, and quickly rose to dominance. Since the early 2000s, Tesla has been a pioneer in reviving the e... » read more

Over-the-Air Automotive Updates


Modern vehicles are increasingly-connected devices with growing volumes of electronic systems. This systemic complexity means that even an average vehicle design will include over 150 ECUs, which control not just infotainment and communications, but powertrain, safety, and driving systems (figure 1). We see not just a surge in the volume and complexity of electronic hardware, but also software.... » read more

Longer Chip Lifecycles Increase Security Threat


The longer chips and electronic systems remain in use, the more they will need to be refreshed with software and firmware updates. That creates a whole new level of security risks, ranging from over-the-air intercepts to compromised supply chains. These problems have been escalating as more devices are connected to the Internet and to each other, but it's particularly worrisome when it invol... » read more

Software-Defined Vehicles


Automobiles long ago stopped being purely mechanical systems. But as more components are electrified — and, in particular, as the drivetrain is electrified — cars are becoming software-defined vehicles. Some think of such cars as computers on wheels. But as these systems continue to evolve, adding in more assisted and semi-autonomous capabilities, that comparison is looking increasingly ... » read more

Why Safety-Critical Verification Is So Difficult


The inclusion of AI chips in automotive and increasingly in avionics has put a spotlight on advanced-node designs that can meet all of the ASIL-D requirements for temperature and stress. How should designers approach this task, particularly when these devices need to last longer than the applications? Semiconductor Engineering sat down to discuss these issues with Kurt Shuler, vice president of... » read more

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