What’s After PAM-4?


[This is part 2 of a 2-part series. Part 1 can be found here.] The future of high-speed physical signaling is uncertain. While PAM-4 remains one of the key standards today, there is widespread debate about whether PAM-8 will succeed it. This has an impact on everything from where the next bottlenecks are likely to emerge and the best approaches to solving them, to how chips, systems and p... » read more

High-Speed Signaling Drill-Down


Chip interconnect standards have received a lot of attention lately, with parallel versions proliferating for chiplets and serial versions moving to higher speeds. The lowliest characteristic of these interconnect schemes is the physical signaling format. Having been static at NRZ (non-return-to-zero) for decades, change is underway. “Multiple approaches are likely to emerge,” said Brig ... » read more

Die-To-Die Connectivity


Manmeet Walia, senior product marketing manager at Synopsys, talks with Semiconductor Engineering about how die-to-die communication is changing as Moore’s Law slows down, new use cases such as high-performance computing, AI SoCs, optical modules, and where the tradeoffs are for different applications.   Interested in more Semiconductor Engineering videos? Sign-up for our YouTu... » read more

Virtual Packages Improve Signal Integrity


The 112 Gb/s generation of SerDes has brought along excessive loss within the package, around 5 dBs of loss within each monolithic package. This loss markedly reduces the usefulness of these SerDes. MCM technology has progressed to where the use of 70mm packages is routine. Non-interposer MCMs easily can use 20 or more chiplets, plus large dies and passives can be used. These MCMs have low ... » read more

SerDes For Chiplets


The XSR 56G and 112G Interoperability Agreements (IAs) announced by the OIF are intended to cover a channel consisting of a pair of up to 50mm. The primary defined application of the XSR SerDes is connecting a chip to a “nearby” optical engine. Because the requirements on these channels are much less stringent than they are on long reach channels, XSR SerDes are expected to have lower power... » read more

Cloud Drives Changes In Network Chip Architectures


Cloud data centers have changed the networking topology and how data moves throughout a large data center, prompting significant changes in the architecture of the chips used to route that data and raising a whole new set of design challenges. Cloud computing has emerged as the fast growing segment of the data center market. In fact, it is expected to grow three-fold in the next few years, a... » read more

M2M’s Network Impact


Synopsys’ Manmeet Walia talks examines the impact of machine-to-machine traffic and why that requires some fundamental changes in networking architectures. Two key issues that need to be addressed are scalability and latency, which require new networking architectures. https://youtu.be/2RIQt3QVPtE » read more