Making IC Test Faster And More Accessible: Part 1


The fundamental challenges of IC test have been the same for a long time. At the heart of all test strategies is controllability and observability. First, control the state of the chip with known test vectors and then observe the chip to determine if it exhibits good or faulty behavior. There have been many innovations over the years to make the required testing of chips more tractable. Thanks ... » read more

Productivity Keeping Pace With Complexity


Designs have become larger and more complex and yet design time has shortened, but team sizes remain essentially flat. Does this show that productivity is keeping pace with complexity for everyone? The answer appears to be yes, at least for now, for a multitude of reasons. More design and IP reuse is using more and larger IP blocks and subsystems. In addition, the tools are improving, and mo... » read more

PCIe 5.0: A Key Interface Solution For The Evolving Data Center


A great many developments are shaping the evolution of the data center. Enterprise workloads are increasingly shifting to the cloud, whether these be hosted or colocation implementations. The nature of workload traffic is changing such that data centers are architected to manage greater east-west (within the data center) communication. New workloads, with AI/ML (artificial intelligence/machine ... » read more

Accelerating Simulation Of PCIe Controllers For DMA Applications


For memory-intensive and high-performance computing, direct memory access (DMA) is indispensable. A typical DMA operation in PCI Express (PCIe) entails the transfer of data from the system memory to end point devices using a point-to-point PCIe bus to reduce latency and increase memory access throughput between the CPU and the device. Verification of DMA engines is concentrated on the data t... » read more

Astera Labs: Purpose-Built Connectivity


Growing amounts of data are forcing companies to rethink where data is processed and when, how and where it is moved. But solutions may vary greatly from one company to the next, and from one use case or application to the next. This is forcing the adoption of a heterogenous compute architecture that combines traditional processors, such as CPUs, GPUs and FPGAs, with AI processors and smart net... » read more

How UVM Callbacks Simplify Assertion Validation


By Akshay Sarup and Mark Olen Assertions bring immediate benefits to the whole design and verification cycle; thus any challenges engineers face in coding and testing them are worth resolving. When a large number of assertions are to be validated, callbacks save time by eliminating the need to code a new sequence for each scenario. Callbacks also provide more dynamic and fine-grained cont... » read more

PCIe Simulation Speed-Up Using Mentor QVIP With PLDA PCIe Controller For DMA Applications


In this case study, PLDA explains how verification engineers can use Mentor’s Questa Verification IP (QVIP) to improve productivity during the functional verification of PCIe designs with DMA engines. The flexibility of Questa VIP was key to creating custom testbenches from scratch that can dynamically adapt to different IP topologies and configurations, mixing PCIe interfaces with multiple A... » read more

USB4: User Expectations Drive Design Complexity


This white paper outlines the capabilities of USB4 Hosts, Hubs, Docks, and Devices with an emphasis on how end-user expectations drive the complexity of USB4 products. USB4 is the most complex USB specification so far and requires designers to understand the USB4, USB 3.2, USB 2.0, USB Type-C, and the USB Power Delivery specifications. Designers must also understand PCIe and DisplayPort specifi... » read more

Power Impact At The Physical Layer Causes Downstream Effects


Data movement is rapidly emerging as one of the top design challenges, and it is being complicated by new chip architectures and physical effects caused by increasing density at advanced nodes and in multi-chip systems. Until the introduction of the latest revs of high-bandwidth memory, as well as GDDR6, memory was considered the next big bottleneck. But other compute bottlenecks have been e... » read more

Connecting Emulated Designs To Real PCIe Devices


These days verification teams no longer question whether hardware assisted verification should be used in their projects. Rather, they ask at which stage they should start using it. Contemporary System-on-Chip (SoC) designs are already sufficiently complex to make HDL simulation a bottleneck during verification, without even mentioning hardware-software co-verification or firmware and softwa... » read more

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