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Meeting The Demands Of PAM4 Systems At 56Gbps And Beyond


According to an IDC white paper sponsored by Seagate the global datasphere will grow from 33 zettabytes (one zettabye = one trillion gigabytes) in 2018 to 175 zettabytes by 2025. This white paper also reports that today, more than 5 billion consumers interact with data every day. By 2025, that number will be 6 billion, or 75 percent of the world’s population. Figure 1 depicts this exponential... » read more

The Basics of Amplitude Modulation


Modulation is the process of varying a higher frequency carrier wave to transmit information. Though it is theoretically possible to transmit baseband signals (or information) without modulating it, it is far more efficient to send data by modulating it onto a higher frequency "carrier wave." Higher frequency waves require smaller antennas, use the available bandwidth more efficiently, and are ... » read more

M2M’s Network Impact


Synopsys’ Manmeet Walia talks examines the impact of machine-to-machine traffic and why that requires some fundamental changes in networking architectures. Two key issues that need to be addressed are scalability and latency, which require new networking architectures. https://youtu.be/2RIQt3QVPtE » read more

SerDes Signal Integrity Challenges At 28Gbps And Beyond


After nearly fifty years, NRZ technology continues to pose significant challenges as data rates approach 56Gbps and refreshed standards mandate increased receiver sensitivity (down to 35 mV). With shorter unit intervals and closing eyes, triggering becomes ever more complex and requires enhanced receiver equalization such as continuous-time-linear equalization and decision feedback equalization... » read more