Systems & Design

The Path To (Virtually) Zero Defective Parts Per Million

How to prevent defective ICs from slipping through the cracks.


Despite thorough wafer and package testing, a small number of defective ICs can make their way into systems. These test “escapes” often return as field failures, increasing costs and eroding profit margins. They can also present a hazard if deployed in safety-critical systems, which is why companies purchasing semiconductors for automotive, medical, or aerospace applications often demand a zero test escape rate – that is, zero defective parts per million (DPPM).

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