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The Industrial Revolution Is Over


One of the greatest impacts of the industrial revolution was that better communication allowed for greater specialization, and with that came better economics. There have been multiple waves of the industrial revolution, each triggered by some improvement in communications. The first wave was all about trains — raw materials and finished goods could be quickly and cheaply moved between cit... » read more

High-Performance SerDes Enable The 5G Wireless Edge


Investment at the core of the global internet is red hot. The number of hyperscale data centers jumped to 700 worldwide at the end of 2021, and with more than 300 in the pipeline, should rise to over 1000 by 20241. In the span of five years, total hyperscale data centers will have doubled. And as the raw number shoots up, more powerful compute and networking hardware is rapidly being deployed, ... » read more

What Will Be The Killer App For 5G? Time To Place Your Bets


5G is here. But where will its capabilities soar first? Here are my guesses for where the breakthroughs could occur along with factors that might hold it back. 1. Supply Chain. The world’s 5,300+ plus cargo ships carry 90% of the world’s freight and can collectively hold 1.97 billion deadweight tons of cargo. 5G—delivered through private networks or secure slices of public networks—c... » read more

Accelerating 5G Baseband With Adaptive SoCs: Part II


In my previous blog, we discussed 5G split architectures with focus on the widely adopted option 7-2 split. In this article, we will cover the implementation of the fronthaul and L1 Hi-PHY for 5G base stations. The 5G distributed unit (DU) can be implemented to process fronthaul data with O-RAN processing and partial offload for Hi-PHY processing which includes the LDPC encoder, LDPC decoder an... » read more

Massive IoT Interop Fuels Protocol Battle


Wireless standards are plentiful, but most are not capable of being scaled to the level of a smart city. As a result, such networks have been built application-by-application using proprietary stacks, often with non-interoperable network layers. That, in turn, has slowed the proliferation of dense wireless connectivity at scale. “In a hyper-connected world, connectivity choices are driv... » read more

Getting Ready For An Efficient Shift To PCI Express 6.0 Designs With Optimized IP


PCI Express (PCIe) 6.0 technology with key changes will bring about challenges that high-performance computing, artificial intelligence, and storage system-on-chip (SoC) designers will face. This article provides designers a summary of the major changes and how they can be handled to ensure a smooth and successful transition to PCIe 6.0. The three major changes in PCIe 6.0 that designers nee... » read more

The Quest To Make 5G Systems Reliable


Semiconductor Engineering sat down to discuss 5G reliability with Anthony Lord, director of RF product marketing at FormFactor; Noam Brousard, system vice president at proteanTecs; Andre van de Geijn, business development manager at yieldHUB; and David Hall, head of semiconductor marketing at National Instruments. What follows are excerpts of that conversation. SE: How do we measure the reli... » read more

Efficient Sensitivity-Aware Assessment Of High-Speed Links Using PCE And Implications For COM


This technical white paper, originally presented at DesignCon, investigates the challenges of increased data rates and reduced margins in high-speed link design. Section 1: Introduction Section 2: State of the Art Link Evaluation and Assessment of Parameter Variability Section 3: Proposed Modeling Framework Section 4: Sensitivity Analysis of a High-Speed Interconnect Section 5: Conclusio... » read more

Beyond-Line-Of-Sight Troposcatter Communications Primer


Though tropospheric scatter (troposcatter, or tropo) communications technology has existed since the 1950s and was used by the U.S. military from 1960 to 2002, this legacy technology is being revitalized in the wake of concerns around the reliability of tactical satellite communications (Satcom). For several decades, satellites were a reliable and secure method of communications that provided s... » read more

Optimizing Embedded Narrowband IoT Modem Solutions To Meet IoT Connectivity Challenges


As the concept of the internet-of-things (IoT) was taking shape, the communications industry started addressing the anticipated need to connect these “billions of IoT devices” (Figure 1). Since these devices are meant to address low-cost, low-power (battery operated) applications, cellular technology trends to increase bandwidth – driven largely by mobile phones – needed to be revisite... » read more

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