CMOS Noise Margin Values


One of the most important parameters describing digital systems operating at high speed is noise margin. In a general sense, noise margins define an acceptable level of noise that can be present on an I/O pin or in an interface. In terms of digital electronics, noise margin characterizes the level of noise that can appear on an I/O pin without creating an error in a received logic state. This i... » read more

Powering CFETs From The Backside


The first CMOS circuits to incorporate backside power connections are likely to be based on stacked nanosheet transistors, but further down the road, planners envision complementary transistors (CFETs) that vertically integrate stacked NFET and PFET devices. With at least twice the thickness of a nanosheet transistor, connecting CFETs to each other and to the rest of the circuit is likely to... » read more

3D-IC Intensifies Demand For Multi-Physics Simulation


The introduction of full 3D-ICs will require a simultaneous analysis of various physical effects under different workloads, a step-function change that will add complexity at every step of the design flow, expand and alter job responsibilities, and bring together the analog and digital design worlds in unprecedented ways. 3D-ICs will be the highest-performance advanced packaging option, in s... » read more

Quantum Computing: Top 5 Questions Answered


At one time, quantum computing was a theoretical conversation restricted to the halls of academia and the imaginations of science fiction visionaries. As breakthroughs in this emerging technology space accelerate, attention and investment are gaining momentum from commercial, governmental, and industrial sectors. The emerging quantum computing use cases are generating substantial buzz—and q... » read more

Dealing With Noise In Image Sensors


The expanding use and importance of image sensors in safety-critical applications such as automotive and medical devices has transformed noise from an annoyance into a life-threatening problem that requires a real-time solution. In consumer cameras, noise typically results in grainy images, often associated with poor lighting, the speed at which an image is captured, or a faulty sensor. Typi... » read more

Understanding Noise And Sensitivity In Spectrum Analyzers


Using a spectrum analyzer to measure noise signals requires several additional factors, such as sensitivity or how well the instrument can measure small signals. The analyzer’s noise floor specifies the average noise level (DANL) in dB, which is the amount of internally generated noise. Analyzers apply noise floor extension using an algorithm applied to subtract the analyzer’s noise contrib... » read more

IoT Building Block: Touch Interface HMI


Many IoT devices have started to include touch screen interfaces as part of their UI to make the devices more intuitive and easier to use. A great interface can make customers really love and want to use your IoT product, but a poor HMI interface makes the device unusable damaging the brand value. Given this impact a touch interface can have on your IoT device, it made me wonder what are the... » read more

A New Approach For Sensor Design


Pawel Malinowski, program manager at imec, sat down with Semiconductor Engineering to discuss what's changing in sensor technology and why. What follows are excerpts of that discussion. SE: What's next for sensor technology? Malinowski: We are trying to find a new way of making image sensors because we want to get out of the limitations of silicon photodiodes. Silicon is a perfect materi... » read more

Research Bits: November 14


Solid-state thermal transistor for heat management Researchers from University of California Los Angeles created a stable and fully solid-state thermal transistor that uses an electric field to control a semiconductor device’s heat movement. It is compatible with integrated circuits in semiconductor manufacturing processes. The team’s design incorporates the field effect on charge dynamics... » read more

Manual X-ray Inspection


Increased density in advanced node chips and advanced packaging offers a way to greatly improve performance and reduce power, but it also makes it harder to inspect these devices for real and latent defects. Higher density can lead to scattering of light, and heterogeneous integration in a package means it’s not always possible to see through all materials equally. Chris Rand, product line ma... » read more

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