Meeting The Demands Of PAM4 Systems At 56Gbps And Beyond


According to an IDC white paper sponsored by Seagate the global datasphere will grow from 33 zettabytes (one zettabye = one trillion gigabytes) in 2018 to 175 zettabytes by 2025. This white paper also reports that today, more than 5 billion consumers interact with data every day. By 2025, that number will be 6 billion, or 75 percent of the world’s population. Figure 1 depicts this exponential... » read more

Wrestling With High-Speed SerDes


SerDes has emerged as the primary solution in chips where there is a need for fast data movement and limited I/O, but this technology is becoming significantly more challenging to work with as speeds continue to rise to offset the massive increase in data. A Serializer/Deserializer is used to convert parallel data into serial data, allowing designers to speed up data communication without h... » read more

A Conference For The Ages


The International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC) was held recently in its permanent location at the San Francisco Marriott Marquis. eSilicon had the honor of both presenting our SerDes capabilities and demonstrating the technology as well. More about that later. First, I’d like to examine the institution called ISSCC. The first ISSCC was held in 1954 in Philadelphia. Yes, 1954, that... » read more

Understanding SerDes Signal Integrity Challenges


Signal integrity (SI) can perhaps best be defined as a set of measures of the quality of electrical signals, which are subject to the effects of noise, distortion and loss. Additional signal integrity issues include jitter, ringing, crosstalk, ground bounce and power supply noise. There are multiple factors that can negatively influence signal integrity, thereby causing errors and system fai... » read more

SerDes Signal Integrity Challenges At 28Gbps And Beyond


After nearly fifty years, NRZ technology continues to pose significant challenges as data rates approach 56Gbps and refreshed standards mandate increased receiver sensitivity (down to 35 mV). With shorter unit intervals and closing eyes, triggering becomes ever more complex and requires enhanced receiver equalization such as continuous-time-linear equalization and decision feedback equalization... » read more