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A Sea Change In Signaling With PCIe 6.0


PCI Express (PCIe) is one of those standards from the PC world, like Ethernet, that has proliferated far beyond its original application space. Thanks to its utility and economies of scale, PCIe has found a place in applications in IoT, automotive, test and measurement, medical, and more. As it has scaled, PCIe has pushed NRZ signaling to higher and higher levels reaching 32 gigatransfers per s... » read more

Choosing The Right Server Interface Architectures For High Performance Computing


The largest bulk and cost of a modern high-performance computing (HPC) installation involves the acquisition or provisioning of many identical systems, interconnected by one or more networks, typically Ethernet and/or InfiniBand. Most HPC experts know that there are many choices between different server manufacturers and the options of form factor, CPU, RAM configuration, out of band management... » read more

Advancing Signaling Rates To 64 GT/s With PCI Express 6.0


From the introduction of PCI Express 3.0 (PCIe 3.0) in 2010 onward, each new generation of the standard has offered double the signaling rate of its predecessor. PCIe 3.0 saw a significant change to the protocol with the move from 8b/10b to highly efficient 128b/130b encoding. The PCIe 6.0 specification, now officially released, doubles the signaling rate to 64 gigatransfers per second (GT/s) a... » read more

CXL Signals A New Era Of Data Center Architecture


An exponential rise in data volume and traffic across the global internet infrastructure is motivating exploration of new architectures for the data center. Disaggregation and composability would move us beyond the classic architecture of the server as the unit of computing. By separating the functional components of compute, memory, storage and networking into pools, composed on-demand to matc... » read more

Re-Architecting SerDes


Serializer/Deserializer (SerDes) circuits have been helping semiconductors move data around for years, but new process technologies are forcing it to adapt and change in unexpected ways. Traditionally implemented as an analog circuit, SerDes technology has been difficult to scale, while low voltages, variation, and noise are making it more difficult to yield sufficiently. So to remain releva... » read more

Enabling Cost-Effective, High-Performance Die-to-Die Connectivity


System advances in accelerated computing platforms such as CPUs, GPUs and FPGAs, heterogeneous systems on chip (SoCs) for AI acceleration and high-speed networking/interconnects have all pushed chip integration to unprecedented levels. This requires more complex designs and higher levels of integration, larger die sizes and adopting the most advanced geometries as quickly as possible. Facing th... » read more

Meeting The Demands Of PAM4 Systems At 56Gbps And Beyond


According to an IDC white paper sponsored by Seagate the global datasphere will grow from 33 zettabytes (one zettabye = one trillion gigabytes) in 2018 to 175 zettabytes by 2025. This white paper also reports that today, more than 5 billion consumers interact with data every day. By 2025, that number will be 6 billion, or 75 percent of the world’s population. Figure 1 depicts this exponential... » read more

Wrestling With High-Speed SerDes


SerDes has emerged as the primary solution in chips where there is a need for fast data movement and limited I/O, but this technology is becoming significantly more challenging to work with as speeds continue to rise to offset the massive increase in data. A Serializer/Deserializer is used to convert parallel data into serial data, allowing designers to speed up data communication without h... » read more

A Conference For The Ages


The International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC) was held recently in its permanent location at the San Francisco Marriott Marquis. eSilicon had the honor of both presenting our SerDes capabilities and demonstrating the technology as well. More about that later. First, I’d like to examine the institution called ISSCC. The first ISSCC was held in 1954 in Philadelphia. Yes, 1954, that... » read more

Understanding SerDes Signal Integrity Challenges


Signal integrity (SI) can perhaps best be defined as a set of measures of the quality of electrical signals, which are subject to the effects of noise, distortion and loss. Additional signal integrity issues include jitter, ringing, crosstalk, ground bounce and power supply noise. There are multiple factors that can negatively influence signal integrity, thereby causing errors and system fai... » read more

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