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The Physics Of Ports And Associated Ground For EM Simulators Serving RF Designs

Understand the ports common to EM simulators, which are the most common simulators for microwave and RF designs at the board, package, and chip level.

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The use of ports in electromagnetic (EM) simulators has evolved and matured over the years to make real-world design simulations practical. Having a foundational understanding of ports provides an intuitive skill in their proper selection and use in conjunction with circuit simulation. In this white paper, we examine ports common to EM simulators, which are the most common simulators for microwave and RF designs at the board, package, and chip level. We also examine why it’s necessary to better understand how to define ports and their associated grounds. This paper provides a detailed account of different types of ports and which ports engineers should use for accurate results and avoiding common mistakes.

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